Communication: The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.
Sender must encode his/her thoughts into some form that can be transmitted to the receiver. The re-
ceiver must perceive the message and accurately decode it to achieve accurate understanding. Errors
can occur during any stage of the communication process.
Effective Communication: Communication whereby the right people receive the right information in
a timely manner.
Basic Issues About Organizational Communication
Communicating by Strict Chain of Command:
Organizational communication could stick to the chain of command: lines of authority and formal re-
porting relationships. However, formal chain of command is an incomplete and sometimes ineffective
path of communication. 3 necessary forms of communication can be accomplished.
Downward Communication: Information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bot-
Upward Communication: Information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top
Horizontal Communication: Information that flows between departments or functional units, usually
as a means of co-ordinating effort.
Deficiencies in the Chain of Command:
Managers recognize that sticking strictly to the chain of command is often ineffective.
Informal Communication - Chain of command fails to consider informal communication between
members (which helps people to accomplish their jobs more effectively). Not all informal communi-
cation benefits the organization.
Filtering: The tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission. The poten-
tial for filtering increases with the number of links in the communication chain. Organizations estab-
lish channels in addition to those revealed in the formal chain of command. For instance, open door
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